Author: Haider Donnelly

Eye Physicians: Key Players in Diagnosing and Treating Eye Conditions

Doctors of optometry typically recommend prescription eye drops and ointments, warm compresses and lid massage, and a higher intake of fluids. For patients with severe dry eye, more invasive measures may be needed, such as scleral lenses that rest on the cornea above the eyelid and are filled with soothing fluid. For more information, contact your local Baltimore Eye Physicians.

Eye Physicians

Over-the-Counter Solutions

Many people can manage mild dry eye symptoms with over-the-counter artificial tear solutions, especially those that contain natural ingredients like flaxseed oil. Look for preservative-free drops that come in single, one-use vials to prevent contamination.

If these don’t help, talk to your eye doctor about prescription brands. These typically offer more concentrated formulas that lubricate the eyes longer. For those with more serious dry eye, there are also prescription medications to boost tear production and reduce inflammation. Oral cyclosporine (Restasis, Cequa) or lifitegrast (Xiidra) may be recommended.

Another option that can provide rapid relief to some patients is autologous serum, or blood-derived serum. These drops contain a mix of growth factors, proteins, antioxidants, and lipids, and for some people are an effective alternative to artificial tears. However, this treatment is not for everyone, so make sure your eye physician is familiar with it before trying it. It is important to work with your family health care provider and an ophthalmologist throughout the process, and to ask lots of questions.

Home Remedies

The most common causes of dry eye are either that your eyes don’t produce enough natural tears or that the oil layer in the tear film is out of balance due to blepharitis (an inflammation of the glands that produces these oils). Home remedies for dry eye can include artificial tears, both unpreserved and preserved. These can be used as a substitute for natural tears and help with redness, itching or discomfort. If you’re suffering from a severe case of dry eye, your doctor may prescribe prescription drops that stimulate tear production or reduce inflammation. Your doctor may also recommend a medication that can be taken orally, like cyclosporine (Restasis, Cequa) or lifitegrast (Xiidra).

You can reduce your risk of developing dry eye symptoms by staying hydrated and eliminating trigger foods. You can also try adding omega-3 fatty acids to your diet, which can be found in oily fish such as salmon, sardines and tuna or in flaxseeds.

Your doctor can also recommend a humidifier for your home, particularly in the winter. This adds moisture to the air and can help relieve dry eye symptoms, especially when they are caused by cold weather or central heating.

Getting enough sleep can help, as well. Studies have shown that not getting enough sleep can decrease tear secretion and lead to the formation of epithelial defects in the cornea.

Other lifestyle changes that can reduce your chances of developing dry eye symptoms include avoiding second-hand smoke, limiting your use of contact lenses, and taking frequent breaks from electronic devices. You can also try using a warm compress on your eyes, and washing your eyelashes regularly to remove debris that can cause dryness.

While these at-home remedies may provide some relief from mild and temporary cases of dry eye, you should see a qualified doctor to find the root cause of your symptoms and get treatment that will be effective. They can also determine if you’re suffering from an underlying condition, such as MGD, which requires a different treatment regimen. If you’re suffering from a serious condition, such as an autoimmune disease, your doctor can change your medications to better control your symptoms.


Professional eye specialists are typically divided into three different groups – optometrists, ophthalmologists and opticians. Each has a distinct role to play in the management of eye care, but they work together to ensure you get the best treatment for your eyes.

Optometrists are trained to diagnose and treat common vision issues like nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. They can also prescribe corrective lenses like glasses and contacts. Depending on your specific needs, they may also prescribe eye drops for conditions like dry eye syndrome.

A comprehensive eye exam includes a thorough assessment of your tear film, or the natural layer of water, oil and mucus that keeps the surface of your eye moist. The eye doctor will also take into account your overall health, including your diet and other conditions that can contribute to dryness in the eye.

Medicated eye drops are available over-the-counter and can provide relief from mild symptoms of dry eye. They can also help restore moisture to the cornea and underlying eye tissues. For more severe symptoms, NYU Langone ophthalmologists recommend cyclosporine, which is sold under the brand name Restasis. This anti-inflammatory medication decreases inflammation of the lacrimal gland, which helps produce tears. The drops are administered twice daily and can take weeks or months before you begin to see results.

An optometrist or ophthalmologist can also prescribe topical corticosteroids, which are used in short-term doses to relieve the redness, swelling and itching that occur with inflammation caused by a lack of tear production. Xiidra, Restasis and other topical corticosteroids are prescribed by doctors at NYU Langone to help patients with autoimmune conditions such as Sjogren’s syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus that can cause an inflammation of the lacrimal gland. They can also be used to treat ocular surface disease, such as keratitis (red eye) or pterygium, which is a benign growth on the cornea that causes itching and pain.


In some cases, eye physicians may recommend or perform surgery to correct a condition that is causing pain or limiting the ability to see. They may repair a retinal tear, for example, or replace fluid with silicone oil or saline. They might also use a laser to reshape the cornea or remove a cataract. Most eye surgeries require anesthesia, but a patient’s preference and the type of procedure determine the kind of anesthesia used.

Generally, eye doctors prefer to use topical anesthesia (drops or gel) for quick procedures. Depending on the type of procedure, though, it might be necessary to administer general anesthesia, especially for children and those with traumatic or major orbital injuries or for patients who are particularly apprehensive. A physician or anesthesiologist administering the anesthesia, or a nurse or anesthetist with training in eye anesthesia, monitors a patient’s heart rate and blood pressure. Sterile precautions are taken, including the use of antiseptic cleaning solutions and sterile drapes and gowns.

For some procedures, eye doctors use a specialized lens to correct the problem at hand. PRELEX, or presbyopic lens exchange, is a refractive surgery that uses a multifocal implant to reduce nearsightedness and farsightedness by changing the way the eye focuses light onto the retina. In this case, the doctor creates a small incision to remove the natural lens of the eye and replace it with an artificial one.

Other surgical options include a cornea transplant, in which the doctor replaces a damaged cornea with healthy donor tissue; or glaucoma surgery to lower eye pressure. In a trabeculectomy, the eye surgeon creates a tiny hole in the white of the eye to allow extra fluid to drain out, which decreases pressure in the eye.

When it comes to DED, Galor investigates the underlying causes of the pain or discomfort. “We try to find out if it’s nociceptive or neuropathic, if there is an activation of the nerves on the surface of the eye,” she says. She also looks for comorbidities that might contribute to the pain, such as fibromyalgia and chronic migraines.

Types of Materials Used in Concrete Repair

Repairing concrete requires a variety of materials. Each must be selected for its early age performance, durability and cost.

Concrete Repair

Hairline cracks can be filled with liquid fillers. Larger cracks, gouges and spalling are best repaired with patching compounds or quick-setting cement. A balcony drawing should be included with each payment requisition to show the location of all repairs made. Visit Website to learn more.

Concrete repair is an ongoing process that is vital to maintaining safe, functional, and aesthetically pleasing surfaces. The best way to keep up with this maintenance is through regular cleaning and the application of a quality sealant that protects against moisture absorption and harsh weather conditions. Additionally, addressing small cracks and damage promptly can help minimize the need for future repairs, saving both time and money.

Before beginning a concrete repair project, it is important to thoroughly investigate the structure to ensure that the underlying cause of failure has been addressed. This can be done by identifying factors such as structural deformation and spalling, or determining the presence of stress zones or shear and bending forces in structural concrete. Once this has been determined, the appropriate repair technique can be selected.

Surface damage such as pitted and rough concrete, surface discoloration, and uneven slabs can often be repaired by resurfacing the affected area with an overlay or self-leveling cement. It is important to choose a repair product that is compatible with the existing concrete and complies with all applicable environmental and load requirements. It is also critical to ensure that the material chosen is properly mixed and applied, and that it is allowed to cure for a sufficient length of time.

SpecChem offers a variety of durable, high-performance repair products that are suitable for a wide range of applications. We also offer helpful guides and training to ensure that our customers are confident in using the right products for the job at hand.

Structural Repair

The structural repair of concrete involves repairing or improving the underlying structure of a building or its foundations. It includes repairing cracks that affect the integrity of the surface, fixing concrete cancer and other such issues. This type of repair is often necessary to keep the building safe for people living in it or using it. It also prevents damage to other structures around it by restoring its structure and keeping it stable.

Concrete repairs can be made using many different products and techniques. However, the best method depends on the type of repair and severity of the deterioration. A qualified repair contractor can determine the best methods for each specific problem. They can also advise on appropriate repair materials.

Repairs that involve structural elements should be carried out by a professional engineer. This is because they may require extensive work to the underlying structure and could be dangerous for workers. A good engineer will know the best way to restore the integrity of a concrete structure and its safety.

A professional will use the right tools and equipment to carry out the concrete repairs. They will take the time to walk through the repair area and ensure that they understand the issue before starting. They will also use a low-shrinkage repair material to ensure that it bonds well with the existing concrete. This is important because if the new repair material shrinks, it can debond and cause further problems.

Epoxy Injection

Using epoxy injection products can help resolve cracking in concrete structures such as walls, slabs, foundations and other commercial concrete surfaces. They can be used to repair existing cracks or to prevent future ones by filling them with an epoxy resin that is stronger than concrete. These systems are very effective and offer a long term solution.

Before injection begins, the crack and surface must be thoroughly cleaned to remove any dirt, dust, oil or grease that could inhibit the bond of the epoxy injection system. After cleaning, the surface to be injected should be sealed with a suitable surface seal, such as an epoxy-based concrete patching compound or masonry mortar. Injection ports (short, rigid plastic tubes with a flat base) are then installed over the crack at points spaced no further apart than the thickness of the concrete member at that location.

Using a syringe or a special injection pump, slowly dispense the epoxy into the crack, moving from one port to the next. Continue until the crack is filled, making sure that the polyurethane flows through any voids in the failure plane, and that no ports are left uncovered by the epoxy. Once cured, the injection ports can be removed. Depending on the application, the crack may need to be monitored over time for signs of recurrence. If it does, methods beyond simple injection may be necessary to bolster the strength of the structure.

Urethane Sealant

Sealants are an essential part of construction and home repair, whether caulking a window or repairing concrete walls. But what type of sealant should you use? The answer depends on the application and environment. Both silicone and urethane sealants have unique advantages and applications.

For example, if the surface you are sealing will be exposed to heavy foot or vehicle traffic, silicone sealants can better resist abrasion damage. Silicone can also better handle torque and vibration, whereas urethane is not as good in this regard.

On the other hand, if you are sealing expansion/contraction joints in concrete surfaces such as driveways and garage floors, a urethane sealant like Loctite PL Concrete Non-Sag Polyurethane Sealant can provide a strong, durable seal that will last for years to come. It is not affected by extreme temperature changes and can be painted for a more seamless appearance.

The up-front cost of a urethane sealant is typically more than that of a silicone sealant, but its lifetime value can often be far greater. Recaulking a single eight-story building can easily cost tens of thousands of dollars, but the initial investment for a high quality urethane sealant is very low compared to the potential costs of ongoing maintenance. Manufacturers will often offer warranties that cover both the chemistry of the sealant and the services that they provide to customers. Those services may include extensive testing, real-person customer support, on-site training and technical assistance.

Hydraulic Cement

Hydraulic cement is a common concrete repair material. It is a type of concrete that starts out as a liquid and quickly dries and solidifies to create a strong material. This trait makes it ideal for projects that need to be completed in a short amount of time, such as construction or structural repair.

Hydraulic concrete can be used to fill and smooth over cracking in basements, floors, outdoor walkways, and around pipes. It is also often used by professional waterproofers to stop leaks in specific situations. This is because hydraulic cement can dry and seal over leaks in a very short amount of time, which can be crucial to stopping water damage before it gets out of hand.

However, hydraulic cement is only a surface patch and is not as effective at sealing leaks that are beneath the concrete or masonry. It is not as resistant to moisture or lateral pressure from outside soil as expanding urethane is.

Additionally, hydraulic cement can easily crack and break down over time if exposed to too much stress. As a result, it is not recommended to use for repairing cracks that are very large or deep, such as a foundation wall crack. It is important to hire a basement waterproofing expert for cracks in a foundation that require more than a simple surface repair. Investing in a permanent solution like a full-coverage waterproofing membrane can help protect the structure and prevent future damage.

Bonding Agents

Bonding agents are natural or man-made materials that help different concrete surfaces act like a single unit. They’re used in repairs such as joining new concrete to old, spraying concrete at construction joints, or adding cement-sand repair mortar.

The type of bonding agent you use depends on the materials you’re using and the surface preparation. For example, some bonding agents can be applied with a brush while others must be sprayed on. You’ll also want to consider the drying time and cost of the bonding agent.

Before applying any bonding agent, make sure that the surface is clean and free of debris and contaminants. If there’s any dirt or grease on the surface, it can prevent the bonding agent from adhering properly, which could lead to a weak bond or even failure.

Rocland offers several different types of bonding agents for various applications. These include Cretelox(r) acrylic integral bonding additive and admixture, Duraguard 100 100% solids moisture-tolerant epoxy primer, sealer and bonding agent for reinforcing steel, and Level Top(tm) Primer for use with the Level-Top(tm) underlayment or Level-Top Supreme self-levelers.

A concrete bonding agent is an essential part of ensuring that your repair project will stand the test of time. It can make the difference between a strong, durable repair and one that fails quickly or worse, breaks apart entirely. So, be sure to choose the right bonding agent for your project and follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.

Faucet Repair Tips

Faucets are typically made from a combination of forged or machined parts. The machining process shapes the faucet body to fit the design and finish.

Faucet Repair

Shut off the water and remove the handle screw using an Allen wrench or a screwdriver. Gently pry off the decorative cap and expose the screw. For professional help, contact Plumbing Express, Inc. now!

When a faucet starts dripping it’s important to get the problem fixed as quickly as possible. Otherwise, it’ll only continue to drip and waste water. One of the first things to do is check that all the screws are tight. If they’re loose, it’s a simple fix and the problem will stop. Another common cause of leaking faucets is an internal part that’s damaged or worn. This can be anything from a rubber O-ring to the inner cartridge. A professional will be able to diagnose the issue and replace the necessary parts.

If your leaky faucet is originating from the spout itself, it’s likely caused by a corroded valve seat. This is an issue that can often be avoided with regular maintenance and inspections by a professional plumber. The valve seat connects the spout to the compression assembly, and over time sediment can build up and start corroding it. This leads to leaks around the spout and other issues.

A leaky spout could also be caused by the washer, which rests against the valve seat and wears down over time from friction. The washer can wear out from being too large or because it’s been installed incorrectly. A professional plumber can replace the washer with the correct size and prevent further problems.

Leaking from the handle is usually a sign of a worn out gasket or O-ring. The gasket is a small rubber ring that fits between the handle and the base of the faucet. Over time, it can become hard and brittle from constant use, or it can just lose its grip and start to leak. Replacing the gasket is a simple process, and a skilled plumber will be able to do it in no time.

A leak from the cartridge can be difficult to diagnose, but it’s important to address it as soon as possible to avoid further damage. This type of leak is most commonly caused by a broken O-ring, but it can also be the result of a damaged cartridge or a valve seat that’s not seated correctly. Depending on the model of faucet, a qualified technician may be able to disassemble it and inspect all the components for any damage.


Dripping faucets can waste gallons of water every year. In addition, the constant dripping can drive up your utility bills. Thankfully, the problem is fairly easy to fix. You can usually solve it by replacing the rubber or neoprene seals, washers, and O-rings. If the issue persists, it may be time to call a plumber for professional help.

The first step is to shut off the water supply at the point where the faucet handles connect to the valves. Next, remove the decorative caps on each handle. You’ll find screws underneath that fasten the handle to the stem. Once you’ve removed the caps, use a flathead screwdriver to loosen and remove the handle screw. If you’re having trouble removing the screw, try using penetrating oil to break up any rust or sediment trapped inside.

After removing the handle, you can begin to inspect and replace the other parts that might be causing leaks. Depending on the type of faucet you have, these include O-rings, washers, and valve seat. Inspect each of these for damage, wear, or corrosion. Once you’ve replaced these parts, you can start reassembling the faucet. Remember to work backwards so you don’t forget any steps.

Before reassembling your faucet, make sure to cover the drain with a towel or old T-shirt. Small faucet parts are prone to falling down the drain, so covering it will prevent them from getting lost in your pipes. Also, it’s a good idea to have a pair of pliers on hand to help you grasp any small components.

After you’ve replaced the O-ring, washer, and valve seat, you can reassemble your faucet. Remember to use the proper order of replacements so you don’t get a new leak. The order should be washer, O-ring, stem, packing nut, screw, and handle. Once you’ve reassembled your faucet, turn the knob to test it for any remaining leaks. If it still drips, you might need to replace the adjusting ring or the nut. Finally, you can add a new retainer ring or sand the valve seat to smooth it out and avoid future leaks.

Mineral buildup

If you notice white, chalky deposits forming around your faucet and showerheads, it’s not dried toothpaste—it’s calcium buildup. Water that contains a high level of calcium salts is called “hard water” and while it’s generally safe to drink, it can be rough on pipes, fixtures, fabrics, and skin. The whitish stains and soap scum associated with hard water aren’t just unsightly; they can also restrict water flow.

Over time, this can narrow the size of the pipe, resulting in decreased water pressure and an increased likelihood of leaks. It can also cause the internal components of your water heater, washing machine, dishwasher, and other appliances to wear out faster. In addition, corrosive elements can form on metal surfaces that affect their appearance, as well as lead to a loss of functionality.

Luckily, there are some easy and inexpensive ways to combat these problems. One of the best methods is simply to soak a sandwich-sized plastic bag in vinegar and secure it around any problem areas (such as your showerhead or drains). For the parts you can’t reach with a plastic bag, use strips of paper towel soaked in vinegar and secure them with rubber bands. Allow these to sit for an hour before removing them and wiping the area clean.

Alternatively, you can use a commercial cleaner or muriatic acid to eat away at the residue. Be sure to use protective gloves when handling any chemicals and always work in a ventilated area. To help prevent future mineral buildup, consider investing in a water softener system for your home. These systems reduce the amount of minerals like calcium that enter your house’s plumbing and end up on your sinks and faucets. You can also find a number of home and commercial water filters online that eliminate hard water residue completely. These are also a great way to save money on your energy bill by reducing the amount of water that is heated and circulated throughout your home. This can make a major difference to your wallet and the environment. If you’re interested in learning more about how a water filter or softening system can benefit your home, contact your local plumbers today.

Coloured water

When your faucets spout out water that’s a murky yellow or brown color, you might be worried about the safety of your water. But this is often not the case, especially if your water comes from the city or other public source. In fact, coloured tap water can actually be a good thing. Coloured water is an indication that your plumbing has more of the minerals and nutrients that are important for human health. It also means that the water is free from toxins and other harmful substances.

One of the most common reasons that your water turns a funny color is rust. If you live in an older home, your pipes might be made of galvanized iron or steel. These pipes have a protective zinc layer that wears away over time. As the rust flakes off and mixes with the water, it changes its color to a yellowish-red or brown. This is usually not harmful and will resolve itself over time. You can test the color of your water by running a few glasses of it and comparing them to each other.

If your water is brown in only one or more of your faucets and it doesn’t clear up after you run a few glasses, you should call your local utility company. They may have been working nearby and inadvertently stirred up sediment that is contaminating the water supply. They will likely tell you that the problem is temporary and that your water should clear up soon.

Another possible cause of coloured tap water is copper. If your water is yellow or orange and you’ve recently installed copper plumbing, it could be a sign that the copper is leaching into the water. In this case, you should run a glass of hot and cold water to see if the discoloration disappears.

If your water is yellow in all of your faucets, the problem is most likely with your pipes or water heater. It might be a simple fix, but you will need to have a plumber find the source of the issue and repair it.